Ust-Kamenogorsk’s streets History
There was Bazarny lane before revolution in the city. It stemmed from creek of Irtysh across the Isle of Medvejy and crossing the streets faced Ulba’s banks. Lane inherited its name because of bazaar placed in block between Andreevskaya and Bolshaya streets until Pozharny lane begins. Strip malls of bazaar lacated from opposite sides of Bazarny square. Brisk trading took place there and peasants brought their products here on Sunday.
Pokrovsky sobor that had been situated opposite, seems to be erected before bazaar as chapel occurred in the very heart of the square. People’s House ,that accessed the square, endowed by a chantry. Many of citizens took part in its construction as well. It is one of the many good causes by exiles sent off here ever. They also cared after it would contain a library and museum room.
The city of Ust-Kamenogorsk spanned much time to be formed. In the first quarter of the last century Stepnoy, Pustynny and Gorny lanes appeared one after another. Little brick town nestled in the very outskirt of the city, just next to mountains.
In length of time, Kirpichny lane came up to street. There were no wooden slums to be observed. In the 50-ies appliance shell plants were erected as it produced first output in 1961. Tramway park were situated the same place. That time this street was so unmoveable, but later it was equipped with tramway lines. Ust-Kamemnogorsky vokzal were linked other regional centers of oblast. Many inhabitants in the street moved into comfortable manystoreyed brick houses.
In 1965 country celebrated the 20th anniversary of Victory in Great Patriotic War. Citizens desided to add a stone to heroes’ cairn by naming Kirpichnaya street after Pavel Ivanovich Myzy.
Пожарный переулок... Для многих усть-каменогорцев это называние мало что говорит. Зато у старожилов города оно воскрешает в памяти упоминание о пожарной каланче, которая возвышалась над городом на одноименной площади, раскинувшейся на углу нынешних улиц Мира и М. Горького (сейчас на этом месте гараж обкома партии), о купеческих лабазах, магазинах, особняках богатых людей города, державших в руках всю монопольную торговлю…
От пожарной каланчи и получил переулок свое название.
Здание, в котором не так давно размещался ресторан «Алтай», а сейчас — выставочный зал областного этнографического музея, было построено пленными чехами для богатого купца И.Н. Кожевникова, а здание, где сейчас размещается магазин «Сауле», принадлежало купцу Савве Семенову, который содержал в нем торговый дом, известный во всей округе. Здесь же, в Пожарном переулке, находились купеческие лабазы Ахмета Рафикова и торговца Боброва. После установления Советской власти в одном из них размещался аптекарский магазин, в другом — читальный зал библиотеки имени А.С.Пушкина.
В Пожарном переулке стояли лучшие жилые дома, они тоже принадлежали богатым людям города: Николаю Семенову, Ахмету Рафикову, Ивану Кириллову, Федору Нудину, Михаилу Шиляеву и другим. После победы революции все эти здания перешли в собственность государства. В них разместились государственные, торговые и культурно-просветительные учреждения. В настоящее время в доме купца М. Шиляева располагается областное бюро путешествий и экскурсий. А в двухэтажном доме купца А. Рафикова сейчас находится общество садоводов — любителей.
В 1936 г. в память о великом пролетарском писателе Пожарный переулок переименован в улицу им. Максима Горького.
Шли годы. Улица на глазах меняла свой облик. Она одна из первых в городе вымощена камнем, а затем заасфальтирована. На ней впервые в городе появились четырехэтажное здание Восточно-Казахстанского геологоуправления и трехэтажные дома. В 1973 г. на этой улице гостеприимно распахнул свои двери ЦУМ — современное здание из стекла и бетона. В двухэтажном здании располагается Усть-Каменогорский горисполком.
В начале улицы от протоки р. Иртыша на месте кварталов небольших старых частных домов теперь разбит уютный сквер, а упирается она в здание детского кинотеатра «Орленок». На углу улиц им. Кирова и М. Горького находится своеобразная скульптурная группа, напоминающая образы тех, кто определил когда-то место строительства Усть-Каменогорской крепости.
Until up to second half of nineteenth century housing buildings in Ust-Kamenogorsk are limited by now Orzhonikidze and Ushanova streets. It was city’s outskirt, only barren laid behind was built up from Ulba river’s area. In 1899, political exiles Galimont, Mikhaelis, Fedorov, Kosturent initiated to make city’s park on the site of former market. Foresters and woodreeves took part in planting of trees. Works went on till 1903. Sets of poplar, hawthorn and apple tree were kindly furnished by military doctor Vistenius who had had good fruitery outside the town recognized as Pankratyevsky by citizens. Garden was slow to people, no care taken by inhabitants. Cattle often wandered in the garden, fireguards cut the grass for their horses. Someone of the visitants one day said garden contains of three haystacks.
City’s garden adjoined with sennoy bazaar situated at the corner of Ozhonikidze and Ushanova streets was famous for its brisk trade of hay, wood, cattle, corn, pain and coals. That’s why it was named Sennoy: there are not many dirty spots in city like this one. All year round wagons were loaded with hay, firing, hardware, kerosene, lime, cattle and fowl. Yet in that century, the father of future chairman of city’s Soviets Yakov Ushanov, entrepreneur Ushanov V.I. owned his large wayside inn at the corner of the street. His estate saw various back-street gatherings by Bolsheviks under colour of parties.
In 1937, Sennoy lane named after outstanding person Orzhonikidze and from then is called a street.
After semicentenary of being street it changed hugely. Wooden houses were replaced with apartment buildings for the first time ever. In 1959, steel ways had been railed and then trolley buses went on it. City gained access to bridge crossing Ulba via Orzhonikidze Street. Traffic area and pavements were asphalted as well. City’s garden had expanded and broadened and in 1946 it was given the name of Jambul. Broadside “Ubileyny” cinema was constructed in the place of sennoy bazaar. The beginning of the street changed its skin completely – bazaar and its chain stores spreading along residential quarters were replaced by city’s administration layed square and now, on its right side multistory apartment houses are being erected.
Эта небольшая, узкая по нынешним временам, улица многие годы играла роль транспортной артерии города. По ней нескончаемым потоком движутся автомобили. Известна она с давней поры под названием переулка Соборного.
Немногим более полувека назад на углу с улицей Большой возвышался величественный Покровский собор — замечательный памятник архитектуры 19 века. Далеко вокруг были видны его зеленые купола. Снесен он был в угоду тогдашней моде в 1936 г., кирпич пошел на строительство зданий железнодорожного вокзала и маслозавода, а на месте соборной площади и примыкающей к ней базарной площади разбит парк, которому дано было имя С.М. Кирова.
Напротив собора было построено в 1902 г. одноэтажное здание для вновь открытого мариинского женского училища. При училище действовали двухгодичные педагогические курсы, готовившие учителей для начальных училищ. Многие из слушательниц этих курсов обучались на средства общества попечения о народном образовании, до 1925 г. они составляли основной контингент учительских кадров в городе. До середины 60-х годов в этом здании в разные годы находились школа II ступени им. А.В. Луначарского, женская школа им. С.М.Кирова, вечерняя средняя школа, позже оно было отдано под больницу, в настоящее время здесь находится один из выставочных залов областного этнографического музея.
Рядом с собором находилось одноэтажное кирпичное здание городской управы. Здесь в 1918 г. размещался Усть-Каменогорский Совдеп. Долгие годы потом здесь были школы, затем городской дом пионеров, теперь после значительной реконструкции в нем находится областной историко-краеведческий музей.
Полновластными хозяевами Соборного переулка были золотопромышленники Касаткин и Костин, купцы Усов, Муравьев, Кривошеин, Шкарпетин, владелец пивоваренного завода Яворовский, священнослужители. Некоторые дома их сохранились до 80-х годов. В бывших номерах Касаткина напротив собора долгие годы находились горисполком, горсобес. А одноэтажный кирпичный дом для священнослужителей собора, последним жильцом которого был священник Гамаюнов, известен был горожанам как москательная лавка.
В годы Советской власти переулок Соборный был переименован в улицу им. Урицкого. В 50-х годах на улице построено здание средней школы № 30 (ныне институт усовершенствования учителей), детской музыкальной школы (ныне городское бюро ЗАГС), позже появились многоэтажные жилые дома, административные здания. К сожалению, и улицу им. Урицкого постигла участь большинства старых городских улиц: в связи со строительством жилых домов ее перерезал проспект Победы.
Initial name of Mira Street is Andreevskaya. Andreevskaya street rose from Irtysh, ran by market place (bazaar), fire station and ended with the city’s barren. Just here, in 1889, political exiles constructed a park which was named after Zhambyl. Manufacturers Makhanov and Bryukhanov settled first here. They lived in clover and nobody could even dream to erect a house next to theirs. That is why the space between Krepostnoi and Mechetsky lane (now Krylova and Karl Marx streets) lied empty for decades and began being explored since Soviet system is enthroned. There were also ancient buildings of dramatic theatre named after Jambil (former House of Folks) and ethnographic museum (former male college).
In 1886 the high building of best for that time male’s college was built. Its front had access to Soborny square. Up to World War this construction gave a home to various educational institutes. During war base hospital was housed in this building. After war ended till 60-ies there were surgery and then evening school in that building. New life is given to the house when it was brought to oblast ethnographic museum.
House of Folks was erected next to it. Convict Inkov who set up a primary drugstore in the city, had constructed his house opposite House of Folks. Inkov’s house later transformed into theatre for working youth at 60-ies, Orthodox Church from 40 to 60-ies( nowadays building of Party archive). One-storied stone groggery in 30-ies was reequipped as 2-year medical school. It was placed opposite to the electrotheatre.
At military times at the corner with Pozharny lane exiled Czechs built a masterpiece of architecture – chine shop that is full of different crockery. “Altai” restaurant was placed for a long time there, then an exhibition hall of oblast ethnographic museum.
At the end of Andreevskaya street there where it landed famous of its future building of city’s prison overlooking the town. Later building was destroyed and framed a new.
In 1920 Andreevskaya was named after Lenin. In the end of 50-ies, when town is built with Lenin Prospect it named Mira street. Now it is the quitest and the greenest streets of city.
In night of 29th to 30th June 1919, in Ust-Kamenogorsky prison, where a place for politicals which were brought together from all Western Siberia, revolt occurred. Kudinov, Bespalov, Buryagin headed the revolt. Getting prison guards disarmed, inmates captured an armoury and took guns and ammunition. And, then rebellions didn’t realize what they would do then. Some offered to sail down by Irtysh on steamer, others insisted on taking the city with further riots in uyezd (then-administrative unit in Russian Empire). Meanwhile, white cossacks marshalled their forces and surrounded the fortress. After clash of arms, many of red rebellions took the plunge to swim across. Many of them were drowned while swimming. Only a few survived: Timofeyev and Goncharenko. Being injured while swimming, Bespalov was rescued by his mother and sister. Unfortunately, he was killed on his way back to home by Whites on his mother’s hands. The Whites did not allowed to tomb the heroes as accepted. The dead were earthed at the Irtysh’s bank. In winter of 1920, their bones were transferred into mass grave. In memory of this event Beregovaya street was renamed into Naberezhnaya Krasnykh Orlov Street. Near the bridge there is a big stone; one day people was going to set up a memorial here.
Up to 1930 it is called Bolshaya. Its name fully matched itself as it was the biggest, the straightest and the most crowded street of that times. Just this street was the first to be paved and later asphalted. Just here city’s festive actions as New Year masquerade to be occurred. This street was built with the biggest and the most luxury apartments of the city owned by manufacturers Menovschikov and Kasatkin, traders Semenov and Kurochkin.
At the beginning of the street the house of political exile Mikhaelis was situated. Nobility sobranie was next to it, then went Mariyin woman’s college( exhibition hall of ethnographic museum today), Pokrovsky Cathedral and various shops. In 1909-11 “Echo” cinema theatre was set up. In 1908-1911 enterpriser Kosturin bought a building later to be a cinema theatre “Oktyabr”(now – “Echo”). In 1918 during uncalm times street was the home of Red Army Squads Spot.
In 1934, Kazakhstan saw a bumper harvest. Raininess, unpreparedness of kolkhozes, sovkhozes and machine and tractor stations would make the country stand in jeopardy of losing its record harvest. Many people arrived in republic in order to help Kazakh people to take the crop. Sergey Kirov was among them. Three days of his trip were devoted to Eastern Kazakhstan. He visited the villages of Shemonaikha, Vidrikha, Gerasimovka, Ukrainka and more others just to see their agriculturists.
After his death, Bolshaya street was renamed into Kirova. Ancient two-storied building of oblast executive is considered as historical monument for Kirov who took the floor from its balcony in 1934. While his speech, he recommended the city’s authorities to move bazaar from downtown to outskirts. According to him, they would have a park to be laid there. His wish had been done and park was laid on the territory of Soborny and Bazaar squares.
Street is named that way because in 20 is considered as the most faraway street in city and took its beginning by Medvyejy peninsula. Before 1914 the left side of the street was only improved and barren stretched further. In years of World War 1 builders began have constructing its right side.
Large wooden control building of Ridder’s Railways was kept as the main site of the street for a long while. Through narrow-gauge line in Ridder, then even Glubokoye, Zyryan’s ore were being conveyed for recycling from Ust-Kamenogorsky Pristan by water ways. Many citizens could recognize it as polyclinic. Some time before structure contained “Altaiscvetmetrazvedka”, trust formed in 1940, considered as think factory of geology in Ore Altai,which is predecessor of East Kazkhstan geological board. Pyotr Pyotrovich Burov was life and senior engineer of trust. Burov as graduated from Leningradsky Mining Institute was directed to work in Ridder and later headed geological party.
After searching work Burov and his fellows had valuated polymetallic ore reserves and discovered some new ones that made solid rough material sources to Leninogorsky Polymetallic Plant. After investigation of Leninogorsky minefield Burov contributed to geological surveys on Zyryanovsky minefield, organized researching activities on Nikolaevski minefield. No person loke him have done so much as he did for discovering of Altai.
Burov just burned himself out at 42, during his bussiness trip to Moscow in 1944. In order to internize the memory of him Medvejya street was renamed into Burova in 1946.
No one would not find a wooden structure of polyclinic; it moved to brick building. Next to it, the building of Territorial region of State Mining Inspection , however a century ago Ust-Kamenogorsky Finishing Ore Dressing and Mine Groupping Plant “Kazolovo”. Multistoried houses replaced private ones.
Nikolskaya Street appeared in the second half of 19th century. It was built over from Irtysh banks. Local authorities settled here – they were police officer, district superior, chieftains, station officers.
Behind sennoy bazaar agricoles made it aside to mountains. The only place worth seeing was the building of pedagogical secondary school.
Nikolskaya bore the name of Trotsky temporarily. Afterwards Nikolskaya was renamed as Ushanova in honour of city’s Sovdep’s Chairman. It changed beyond recognition. Head of the street in riverside where mass grave is placed. After Soviet System had been recovered the bones of dead rebellions during revolt in 1919 and 26 undergrounders of Karash, Samar region shoot down in Ust-Kamenogorsk in July, 1919 were replaced into the bed of honour.
In the place of former bazaar in the second part of the 50-ies Lenin’s Square had been laid out and on 6th of November, 1958 was established a monument to him. House of Soviets had been laid in 1961 and in 7 years was put in commission. Builders ended their work over Policy House in 1973 and Connection House in 1959 adjoined by top-heavy structure of “GlavVostokStroy”. 1961 – the year of the first production in Ust-Kamenogorsky Appliance Factory situated here.
Instead of small wooden and adobe houses new multi-storied houses built. Street is greeny and asphalted nowadays. In 1958 tramway lines were laid and connected Ust-Kamenogorsky station with Zaschita, Vostokmashzavod, CSK.
In 1970 city had access to Left Bank of Irtysh via street. Yet in 1980, city enjoyed the biggest supermarket of its own called CUM for now.
Everyone who lived in Usy-Kamenogorsk for a long should be familiar with Permitin street. There were city’s hospital, then polyclinic functioned since 1903 and till 1960. Andreevich Poluektov gave a half of his life to the work in polyclinics. After a few years, it became kindergarten “Anutiny glazki”. To 1903 lesnichy Puzyrev owned that territory, where he had created a garden next to his apartments. At soviet times, pioneer park was laid at its place. As it seems to us, it is called like that.
Teacher Psarev lived in that street for a while. He was fond of nature life and fervent hunter. He became a proof-reader of newly published “Hunter of Altai” journal in 1923. Efim Nikolayevich Permitin, being born in Ust-Kamenogorsk, was an editor-in-chief for some 8 years of journal.
“My literary birth is closely connected with a brown pages of “Hunter of Altai” and sounds I devoted ever since I had been born was towards its issues” – wrote Permitin. He printed his many stories in the pages of journal like “Gorny Orly”, “Kapkan”, “Nikita Kozlyatkin”, “V Osade”, “U Kostra”, “V Belkakh” and others. Street was later named after his outstanding personality, personality of Permitin.
Nowadays street changed hugely. Manystoried houses make it most of its landscape. DOSAAF office blocks, “Rudny Altai” and “Kommunizm tuyi” newspaper offices, Party’s city committees, supermarket “Moda” and children’s café “Baldyrghan” and many more.